PHYSICAL REVIEW D 92
, 055026 (2015)
ISSN: 1550-7998, SCI
Unifying the electroweak and B − L interactions
P. V. Dong
We argue that the gauge symmetry which includes SUð3ÞL as a higher weak-isospin symmetry is
manifestly given by SUð3ÞC ⊗ SUð3ÞL ⊗ Uð1ÞX ⊗ Uð1ÞN, where the last two factors determine the
electric charge and B − L, respectively. This theory not only provides a consistent unification of the
electroweak and B − L interactions, but also gives insights in dark matter, neutrino masses, and inflation.
The dark matter belongs to a class of new particles that have wrong B − L numbers, and is stabilized due to
a newly realized W-parity as residual gauge symmetry. The B − L breaking field is important to define the
W-parity, seesaw scales, and the inflaton. Furthermore, the number of fermion generations and the electric
charge quantization are explained naturally. We also show that the previous 3-3-1 models are only an
effective theory, as the B − L charge and the unitarity argument are violated. This work substantially
generalizes our recently proposed 3-3-1-1 model.